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Showing posts from September, 2020

We must give psychology away

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George Miller was one of the founders of cognitive psychology and psycho-linguistics. He reached fame with his article The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two, in which he showed that the capacity of human short-term memory is limited to the capacity to remember roughly 7 elements. When Miller became president of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1969, he made a statement that appealed to me.

12 quotes from Michael Cohen's book Disloyal

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I read Michael Cohen's book Disloyal. Here are some quotes from the book and some thoughts about the book and Trump.

Social Progress Index 2020: Is the world making (enough) progress?

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The Social Progress Index (SPI) of 2020 has been published today.The SPI uses non-economic indicators to chart how well countries are doing.Read below how it works in the 163 countries described in the SPI. Overall, is the world continuing to make progress?How is your own doing?Are there certain things that clearly need improvement?Which countries are progressing the fastest?Which countries are actually declining?How is the United States doing in the era of Donald Trump?

Difficult Conversations: Dealing with the tension between honesty and benevolence

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We all have had to have difficult conversations at some point, like conversations where we say no to a request, give negative feedback, or communicate a negative decision or assessment. In these kinds of bad news conversations, people often experience a tension between two moral motivations, namely to be honest and to be benevolent. Emma Levine, Annabelle Roberts, and Taya Cohen explain, in a new paper, that people often make ineffective choices in how to deal with that tension, and they provide practical tips on how to better approach situations like this.

How do you address each other? A situational communication model

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In most professions the quality of work performance depends mainly on human actions. In this human action, not only technical knowledge and skills are important, but also cooperation and communication skills. Collaboration is often important because people are usually responsible for achieving results together. They have to inform each other, support each other, teach each other things and clarify expectations. The situational communication model below can help you determine how to communicate effectively in different situations.

Four questions to make your feedback as effective as possible

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Feedback can be very valuable. Feedback, information about the effects of our behavior, can help us get better at what we do. By definition, we ourselves only have a limited insight into the effects of our actions. Other people look at what we do from a different perspective and can therefore see different things. Moreover, they may have more or different knowledge and skills, so that their feedback can be extra educational for us. Whether these positive effects of feedback are realized depends on what the feedback is about and how effectively the feedback is delivered. Here are some questions to make your feedback as effective as possible.

Unmaskers unmasked? A different perspective on replication studies

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A paper by Bryan, Yeager & O'Brien (2019) sheds a new light on the replication crisis in psychology. An image that has emerged here and there of original authors as tinkering cheats and replicators as holy defenders of scientific morality must be revised. Replicators often take too many liberties, both in the design of their research and in the way in which they analyze data.

How do you react to repeated transgressions of your child?

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As parents, we play an important role in how children develop. We have a lot of influence on what they consider important and how they behave. But how we can best fulfill our role as a parent is not always easy to imagine.

Classic research Edward Deci (1971): the undermining effect of rewards on intrinsic motivation

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If you had to point out one starting point in the development of self-determination theory, it should probably be Edward Deci's classic research into intrinsic motivation. He published that study in 1971, and it was the first major publication in a large series of publications that would follow from Ed Deci and Richard Ryan and an ever-expanding network of researchers. Here you can read a brief description of that study.

5 Principles for Reframing Negative Events

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A recent publication by Walton & Brady (2019) describes 5 principles for reframing negative events. These principles can be applied by the person who has experienced a negative event. But also by others such as, parents, teachers, doctors, managers, and so on.

Beyond money: primary social goods, basic needs and well-being

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A recent study links John Rawls's vision of a just society to the basic psychological needs of self-determination theory.

How to motivate students? Use a dual process!

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The dual process model provides insight into how teachers can support student motivation. Self-determination theory offers important clues for how teachers can improve student motivation. This article provides a summary of these types of interventions. When teachers apply these interventions, students are likely to feel better, become more engaged in lessons and learn and perform better. Jang, Kim & Reeve (2016) show that a two-track approach, or, as they call it, a "dual process model", is needed to achieve this.

Growth mindset debunked? Not so much. Simple re-analysis of Li & Bates (2019) shows that Mueller & Dweck (1998) is not debunked, but confirmed

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One of the best-known studies in relation to mindsets is the study by Mueller & Dweck (1998). Here I discuss that article in detail. Li & Bates (2019) recently conducted a replication study by Mueller & Dweck and said they had not found the originally found effects. But in a response to this article, Dweck & Yeager (2019) show that Li & Bates' replication study does not meet the requirements that are currently set for replication studies. Moreover, they show that by correcting for some of the simplest deviations from those requirements, Li & Bates' data does not invalidate Mueller & Dweck's conclusions, but corroborates them.

Mueller & Dweck (1998) Classic Study: The Undermining Effects of Intelligence Compliments

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One of the most influential papers by Carol Dweck and her colleagues is the Mueller & Dweck (1998) paper entitled Praise for Intelligence Can Undermine Children's Motivation and Performance. Over the years, this study has been criticized or disputed from various quarters, sometimes largely justified, sometimes largely unjustified. Knowing these criticisms, I argue that Mueller & Dweck (1998) is a classic publication that has lost little or nothing of importance. Here you can read a brief description of that research.