December 21, 2015

The power of intrinsic rewards is great but soon forgotten

Research into self-determination theory has shown that doing things we find interesting has many positive effects. Doing interesting work in intrinsically rewarding. This means that the doing of the work is so interesting and pleasurable that we need no encouragement to want to do it. When we do such activities we tend to be more engaged, we learn and perform better and we persist longer. By the way, what makes activities interesting is not only determined by the content of the activity bit also by the context in which we are doing it, for example the pleasant social interactions we have when doing the activity.

December 20, 2015

Overconfidence and the fixed mindset

Research has shown that many people tend to overestimate their own capabilities. This overconfidence may undermine performance and relationships with other people. This tendency of people to be overconfident is often thought to be universal. New research, however, shows that this is not the case. It shows that people with a fixed mindset are more vulnerable to overconfidence.

November 22, 2015

How to develop persistence?

Psychologist Angela Duckworth chose the term grit to describe people's ability to work hard and keep on focusing on their long term goals. According to Duckworth this ability enables people to accomplish a lot in their lives. If one views grit as something worthwhile (which it indeed seems to be although I also have several critical questions about the construct) one might wonder how to develop it.

November 21, 2015

Spreading Western values?

A few hundred years ago, since the scientific revolution, the age of enlightenment, and the industrial revolution, an explosive progress has taken place in prosperity, health, freedom, and justice. This progress begin in Western countries and is now spreading across the world. This development is a long term process. There is still much poverty and injustice in the world and thus much further progress needed.

Some skeptics think that spreading the values and principles which have contributed to such great progress in the Western world actually comes down to spreading Western values. Therefore, it would be a way to establish Western dominance.

November 16, 2015

Letting go of irrational beliefs

Being able to change your beliefs is necessary for keeping on playing a positive role in the world. Not being able to think critically about your own beliefs and to change them when they are not true eventually will keep you from playing a constructive role. An ultimate example of the inability to change one's views can be found in religious fanatics who create death and destruction while believing they are doing something good.

Letting go of beliefs can be important but also hard.

November 14, 2015

Believing in progress is not the same as believing in perfection

Recently, a debate took place between Steven Pinker and Matt Ridley on the one site and Malcolm Gladwell and Alain de Botton on the other side. The debate was about the motion 'human kind's best days lie ahead'. Pinker and Ridley defended the motion, Gladwell and de Botton argued against it. You can watch the debate here.

November 12, 2015

Autonomous motivation: interesting and/or important

I'd like to clear up a possible misunderstanding about the distinction between intrinsic motivation (doing what you find interesting) and internalized motivation (doing what you find important). Ed Deci explains in this video that the distinction between controlled and autonomous motivation is an important one. Our motivation is controlled when we are either coerced or seduced into a behavior. When our motivation is controlled we may experience stress and anxiety. Also, we find it harder to persist and the quality of our performance is relatively low. When we are autonomously motivated we experience willingness and volition. We also feel and perform better and persist longer.

November 10, 2015

The power of intrinsic goals

New research shows two interesting things: 1) that people achieve more progress on goals which are connected to intrinsic aspirations, and 2) that people experience greater vitality when when making progress on intrinsic goals.

The humble path to progress: Goal-specific aspirational content predicts goal progress and goal vitality
- Hope, Milyavskaya, Holding & Koestner (2015)

November 3, 2015

Study: old people better at correcting their mistakes than young people

That most of our abilities decline as we age, is a fact. But is this equally true for all our abilities? No. In this article I write that certain abilities can grow into old age. Also, I write that certain meta-cognitions such as mildness may increase and attitudes such as egocentrism may decrease. In this article I mention several other examples. This week I came across another example of something which we may get better at as we get older.

November 2, 2015

How intelligent people can keep believing in what is not true

How can it be that we sometimes keep holding on to certain beliefs of which we could know, and perhaps deep inside do know, that they are not true? Think about things like magical thinking, superstition and views which logically can't be true and things we have proven to be untrue? In a new article, Believing What We Do Not Believe: Acquiescence to Superstitious Beliefs and Other Powerful Intuitions, Jane Risen looks at this question from the perspective of dual process models such as Kahneman's model distinguishing system 1 and 2 thinking.

October 28, 2015

What is a growth mindset not?

Perhaps a growth mindset sounds attractive. But perhaps it also sounds to good to be true. Therefore, let's have a look at what a growth mindset is and what it is not. Briefly put, a growth mindset is the belief that you can change your abilities though the investment of effective effort. People do not simply either have a growth mindset or a fixed mindset. Mindset is not like a switch with just two modes: fixed or growth. Instead, there are many degrees possible. It is better to think of mindset as a continuum than as a switch. Furthermore, mindset can be subject to fluctuations. Influences from our environment continuously act on how we think about the malleability of our abilities. In addition to that, it is normal to have different mindsets with respect to different topics. We may believe that we are able to develop certain abilities but may never improve other abilities.

October 27, 2015

What do you choose: mastery goals or performance goals?

An important distinction in psychology is the distinction between mastery goals and performance goals. Mastery goals are goals which focus on learning new knowledge and skills. Performance goals are about achieving and competing for outcomes. This distinction is important for education. Should you focus on teaching students to set mastery goals or is it wiser to teach them to set performance goals? What works better?

4 Factors which impede change of beliefs

Because beliefs have such great influence in our lives, it is important to be able to evaluate our beliefs properly and to keep developing them. Beliefs are malleable. We can find out that a belief we used to have is untrue and restricts us in our life. But changing our beliefs is not always easy. That is because, as people, we have certain obstacles which may impede changing our beliefs. I want to mention four of those obstacles.

October 15, 2015

Book: Building Autonomous Learners

Self-determination theory is applicable to many areas of life. Education is a good example. There is a new book which deals specifically with this area of application: Building autonomous learners. Perspectives from Research and Practice using Self-Determination Theory.

October 14, 2015

Activity scheduling and depression

There are different types of ways to deal with mental problems such as depression. Three such ways are: (1) taking medication, (2) going into therapy, and (3) helping yourself to solve it. A lot of research has been done into the efficacy of (1) and (2). Less research has been done into (3). There is a non-cynical interpretation of this but also a more cynical interpretation. I don't know which interpretation is more valid. There may be truth in both of them.

October 5, 2015

Choosing better education and a growth mindset

Recently I criticized an article by Alfie Kohn in which he criticized Carol Dweck. Whether Kohn does not understand the growth mindset well, and is not well informed about mindset research, or deliberately misleads, I don't know. But what he says, isn't true. I want to focus on one of his criticisms because it contains an especially misleading thought. Kohn suggests that promoting a growth mindset implicitly sends the message to just accept and adjust to the conditions we encounter instead of changing them. I'll explain why this is not true.

October 4, 2015

The limiting effects of implicit self-beliefs

Our beliefs about ourselves can have a strong impact on how we behave and on how we develop and flourish. We are not always aware of our self-beliefs. There are what we call implicit self-beliefs. An example of such an implicit self-belief might be: "I am not a math person." Researchers Cvencek et al. (2015) of the University of Washington found, in a study with 299 Singaporean elementary-school students that children of this age often already have such implicit beliefs about whether they are or aren't 'math people'.

How robust are research findings on the growth mindset?

Recently I wrote about the replication problem in the social sciences. A big team of researchers has replicated 100 psychological studies which were published in prominent journals. The result: many of the effects that were found in the original studies were not found in the replication studies en many of the effects that were found were weaker. I wondered whether among those studies there were also studiers on the growth mindset and, if yes, whether their effects were also found in the replication studies.

October 3, 2015

Study: the Dunning-Kruger effect does exist

The Dunning-Kruger effect is the phenomenon that people who are less competent in a certain area assess themselves too positively while people who are more competent assess themselves more realistically. The explanation for this phenomenon is that you need knowledge about an area of competence to assess yourself realistically. The existence of the Dunning-Kruger effect is somewhat counter-intuitive and paradoxical. Apparently, we cannot trust our own perceptions of how good we are at something. Thinking you are quite good at something might just as well be an indication that you are actually not very good at all.

September 25, 2015

Does democracy require a reform of capitalism?

In 2012, economist Richard Wolff wrote a book called Democracy at work. A cure for capitalism which I read last week. I was a bit skeptical about the book's subtitle, not sure whether the idea that capitalism would need a cure wasn't streching it a bit, but I was attracted to the democracy at work part, so I did decide to read it.

After reading it I found the book interesting but wasn't sure how convincing I thought it was. I still wondered whether capitalism needed a cure. I did not intend to write a post about the book. Then, this week, I read about the news of several corporations being caught in unethical acts (example 1, example 2) and I revisited the book and decided to try to summarize Wolff's criticism and proposed solution.

September 23, 2015

Carol Dweck reflects on the growth mindset in eduction

A new article has been published in Education week by Carol Dweck called Carol Dweck Revisits the 'Growth Mindset'. The topic is, of course, the growth mindset. But this is not your typical article explaining the growth mindset and the fixed mindset. This article has some interesting reflections by Dweck on her work and its practical application.

September 20, 2015

Review of Leadership BS by Jeffrey Pfeffer

I have read many of Jeffrey Pfeffer's books and was looking forward to his new book Leadership BS: fixing workplaces and careers one truth at a time. Unfortunately, I think it is a disappointing book. 

Stanford University professor Jeffrey Pfeffer has a provocative new book called Leadership BS: Fixing Workplaces and Careers One Truth at a Time. In the book he criticizes the leadership training industry which, he says, teaches that leaders should be trustworthy, authentic, serving, modest, and empathetic. But according to Pfeffer, there is no evidence that this leadership training does any good. In fact, he says it is harmful because it paints a much too idealistic picture of organizational reality and of the reality of leadership.

September 14, 2015

Limited-resource view of willpower predicts low goal progress and low well-being

Implicit theories about willpower predict subjective well-being
by Katharina Bernecker, Marcel Herrmann, Veronika Brandstätter and Veronika Job (2015)

Objective: Lay theories about willpower—the belief that willpower is a limited versus nonlimited resource—affect self-control and goal striving in everyday life (Job, Dweck, & Walton, 2010). Three studies examined whether willpower theories relate to people's subjective well-being by shaping the progress they make towards their personal goals.

Method: A cross-sectional (Study 1) and two longitudinal studies (Study 2 & 3) measured individuals' willpower theories and different indicators of subjective well-being. Additionally, Study 3 measured goal striving and personal goal progress.

September 12, 2015

Mental effort can be contagious

In what they do, people are sensitive to the presence of others. But what is exactly known about the influence of other people's presence? The social facilitation effect has been known since 1965 and means that people perform behaviors which are largely automated more easily in the presence of others. But the presence of others can be distracting when executing tasks which require much concentration (Horwitz & McCaffrey, 2008). In a new study Desender, Beurms, & Van den Bussche (2015) demonstrate that mental effort can be contagious.

September 9, 2015

Choice in tasks can increase intrinsic motivation

Interesting new study showing that choice in tasks, however trivial and inconsequential, can increase one's intrinsic motivation:

Live as we choose: The role of autonomy support in facilitating intrinsic motivation
by Liang Meng and Qingguo Ma (2015)

Abstract: According to Self-determination Theory (SDT), autonomy is a basic psychological need, satisfaction of which may lead to enhanced intrinsic motivation and related beneficial outcomes. By manipulating the opportunity to choose between tasks of equal difficulty, throughout the motivational process, the effect of autonomy support was examined both behaviorally and electrophysiologically.

September 8, 2015

Verbal rewards and autonomous motivation

The undermining effect revisited: The salience of everyday verbal rewards and self-determined motivation 

by Rebecca Hewett, and Neil Conway

Summary: Self-determination theory suggests that some rewards can undermine autonomous motivation and related positive outcomes. Key to this undermining is the extent to which rewards are perceived as salient in a given situation; when this is the case, individuals tend to attribute their behavior to the incentive, and the intrinsic value of the task is undermined. The role of salience has yet to be explicitly tested with respect to work motivation; we know little about whether undermining occurs in relation to verbal rewards, which characterize everyday work. We examine this in a field-based quantitative diary study of 58 employees reporting 287 critical incidents of motivated behavior.

September 3, 2015

IDoneThis: what have you done today?

This morning we did a workshop on the progress principle (read more) and on autonomy support (read more). This session was attended by someone who has done several trainings with us before and who is well informed about the progress-focused approach. During a reflection discussion we had right after having done an exercise, he mentioned a tool which I had not heard about before and which sounds interesting: IDoneThis.

August 31, 2015

The leftward drift

I came across an intriguing bit in Richard Nisbett's book Mindware which was about what he called the leftward drift. This leftward drift refers to the fact that the number of college and university students who self-identify as liberal or far left in their political orientation increase as they move through college. At the same time, the number of students who call themselves conservative or far left decreases. In other words, college makes many students drift to the left in their political views.

August 30, 2015

5 Dimensions of belief systems

Gerard Saucier of the university of Oregon has done research into belief systems of people. Belief systems are important because they guide people's behaviors and thereby influence their development and the circumstances in which they will find themselves. Saucier has created insight into what kind of belief systems there are. He did this using factor analysis. Through factor analysis it is possible to reduce a large number of variables to a more limited number of variables (factors; read more). Saucier found out that the degree to which people vary in their beliefs can be describes using the following 5 dimensions (Saucier, 2013).

How to deal with the arrogant-yet-ignorant state of mind

We do not fully perceive and understand reality as it is. First, our senses do not permit us to perceive large parts of reality accurately or at all. Second, evolution has equipped us with cognitive rules of thumb (heuristics) which are fast and helpful to survive in most situations but which are also crude and inaccurate in many ways (read more). To add to this, we are to some (perhaps large) extent unaware of these handicaps. In other words, we may be ignorant without realizing it. The 2x2 model below describes four states of mind regarding our own ignorance.

August 28, 2015

Solving the replication problem in social science

Today, a team of researchers has made a good contribution to solving the replication problem in social science. 

Previously, I wrote about what science is and why it is important (see Improving science). In that piece I used the picture below to describe some essential parts of the scientific process. Each of these parts are links in the chain of the scientific process and play an essential role in making science function well. In several of these links there are some serious weaknesses which threaten the quality of science.

August 21, 2015

Alfie Kohn's misleading critique of Carol Dweck

Alfie Kohn has written an new article entitled The perils of “Growth Mindset” education: Why we’re trying to fix our kids when we should be fixing the system. The article is critical of the popularity of idea of the growth mindset. Kohn says the growth mindset concept was a promising idea but got over-simplified - something against which Carol Dweck did not object enough according to Kohn - and has now been coopted by conservative ideology. While Kohn's article raises some valid points, I disagree with its general contention.

August 20, 2015

Review of Mindware: tools for smart thinking by Richard Nisbett

Psychologist Richard Nisbett has written a new book called Mindware: tools for smart thinking. I think it is essential reading for students of psychology. Here is my review.

As a psychology student in the 1980s I first learned about the work of the Richard Nisbett. Together with Lee Ross (who coined the term fundamental attribution error; which I will come back to later) he wrote the classic book Human Inference (1980) about how people use rules of thumb in social judgment and decision making and about how we often systematic mistakes in the way we judge events and people. Nisbett & Ross' work build on and was closely related to the work done by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman.

July 7, 2015

The upright thinkers

Some time ago I mentioned Steven Weinberg's book The discovery of science which I liked a lot. Now there is a great new book about roughly the same topic written by physicist Leonard Mlodinow called The upright Thinkers.

While Weinberg's book emphasizes Ancient Greek and astronomy/physics Mlodinow's book is a bit broader in its focus. The upright thinkers' description of human's search for knowledge starts earlier, with evolutionary predecessors of homo sapiens. The book is also broader than Weinberg's book in the sense that it pays more attention to other sciences like chemistry and biology.

An admirable and fascinating book.

July 4, 2015

Written feedback using the plus, the arrow, and the question mark

Giving written feedback using the plus, the arrow, and the question mark can make your feedback more useful and the process of giving feedback more pleasant.

Many people frequently receive written feedback to what they have written themselves. Written feedback can fulfill an important function. Other people may have more knowledge and a different perspective which may enable you to learn from them. Also, feedback may help you check whether what you have written is clear and comes across as you intended.

July 2, 2015

Respecting truth

Philosopher Lee McIntyre has written a very interesting new book called Respecting truth: willful ignorance in the Internet age. If you liked my article On the importance of evaluating truth claims and my little tool for evaluating truth claims, you must also like this book.

In the book, Lee McIntyre argues that our relationship with truth is complex. On the one hand we often live our lives as if we believe that truth exists. On the other hand many of us are often willfully ignorant. What this means is that we refuse to consider evidence which contradicts our beliefs because we don't want to abandon those beliefs. McIntyre says that ignorance or false beliefs aren't what is dangerous but the choice to remain ignorant by insulating ourselves from new ideas or evidence.

Progress monitoring works

Does Monitoring Goal Progress Promote Goal Attainment? A Meta-Analysis of the Experimental Evidence
Harkin et al. (2015)

Abstract: Control Theory and other frameworks for understanding self-regulation suggest that monitoring goal progress is a crucial process that intervenes between setting and attaining a goal, and helps to ensure that goals are translated into action. However, the impact of progress monitoring interventions on rates of behavioral performance and goal attainment has yet to be quantified. A systematic literature search identified 138 studies (N = 19,951) that randomly allocated participants to an intervention designed to promote monitoring of goal progress versus a control condition. All studies reported the effects of the treatment on (a) the frequency of progress monitoring and (b) subsequent goal attainment.

June 30, 2015

Is there such a thing as civilization?

Is there such a things as civilization? Or is what we call civilization an illusion and would we be wiser to return to our natural state? 

A central theme in the discourse about progress was the difference between the views of the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) and the French philosopher (from Swiss origin) Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778). Hobbes view people as naturally cruel and violent, in other words as bad. In his book Leviathan, he explained that the solution for this problem is a monarchy or other form of government which represents the will of the people and has the monopoly on violence.  He saw civilization as a way of curbing people's badness.

June 24, 2015

No progress-warranty

Making progress in what is important to us is very motivating. I am referring both to individual progress, progress in your own life, and collective progress, progress at the level of groups and societies. What can be a problem is that progress is not always easy to see. When we do not pay close attention we can easily overlook it. Also, it is not always clear whether we should interpret a development as progress. There is, I think, an inherent reason why progress can be hard to see. By making progress we may encounter new situations which pose higher demands on us. Those higher demands, we can perceive as signs of decline or regress instead of progress.

June 18, 2015

Activating a student

I came across a beautiful example of activating a student in a progress-focused manner. 

Tina teaches high school students in a special boarding school. During the brief period (usually several months) in which these students are at the boarding school they work independently on their subjects most of the time and whenever they need some help or explanation Tina and their colleagues provide it to them. Of course, every now and then the students also have to take tests. Tina frequently uses progress-focused principles and techniques such as growth mindset interventions and autonomy supportive interventions. Every day, she writes brief observation/reflection diary entries, both for her own purpose and to inform her colleagues about what happened on that day. I have read and remembered one of the recent entries in that diary. I went something like this.

June 15, 2015

7 Skeptical comments about neuroplasticity

On this website, I have written several enthusiastic posts about neuroplasticity (for example, see this, this, this, this, and this). According to Wikipedia, neuroplasticity refers to changes in neural pathways and synapses due to changes in behavior, environment, neural processes, thinking, and emotions - as well as to changes resulting from bodily injury. Because I believe that it is wise, when learning, to alternate between an attitude of receptiveness and enthusiasm and an attitude of skepticism and criticism, it seemed like a good idea to explore some critical voices about (publications on) neuroplasticity. I'll do this on the basis of a few authors who have expressed themselves rather skeptically (and, in some cases, cynically) about the use of the concept of neuroplasticity or publications about neuroplasticity.

Working in solitude on very ambitious goals

New research suggests how people may work in solitude on very ambitious goals and feel good about it. 

Some famous artists and scientists from the past must have set extraordinary ambitious goals for themselves and must have worked for extremely long periods of time in solitude on their work and discoveries. For example, it is known that Isaac Newton, generally viewed as one of the greatest scientific geniuses of all time, who was highly productive as well, spend many years working in relative solitude. I have sometimes wondered how such people have managed to accomplish such things and to what extent they experienced gratification about their life style. I came across two articles by Thuy-vy Nguyen which give a clue about how some people are able to lead and bear such lives.

The real lesson from the Stanford prison experiment?

Which lesson can we draw from the Stanford prison experiment? 

The Stanford prison experiment, designed and conducted by Philip Zimbardo in 1971, is one of the most famous experiments in psychology. In the basement of Stanford University an imitation of a prison was built. Students who participated in the study were randomly assigned the role of prisoner or guard. Zimbardo himself also participated in the experiment in the role of superintendent. The standard interpretation of the findings of the study is something like: after a while prisoners started to behave helplessly and submissively while guards started behaving cruel and abusively. The experiment was stopped after a student who conducted interviews in the imitation prison objected to the cruelty of what was happening.

June 8, 2015

Feedback in Three Steps

© 2003, Coert Visser

As a manager you have just led a meeting. John brought forward a proposal to implement a Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system. He did this convincingly and enthusiastically but seemed to leave very little room for his colleagues Michael and Peter to respond. You want to talk to John about this...but how?

June 4, 2015

The plus behind the minus: which questions can you ask?

Several years ago, I introduced the technique of 'finding the plus behind the minus'. The basic I idea behind it is that when people express themselves negatively (through a complaint, a reproach, or criticism) there is always something positive behind that negative expression. That positive thing is something which they find valuable or important, a value, a principle, a goal, of whatever you want to call it. Briefly, the technique comes down to searching for that plus behind the minus. In our progress-focused training programs we frequently practice this technique with our participants, especially in cases which deal with resistance of conflicts. When you are trying to help people in a conflict situation to express the plus behind their minus this has several benefits. First, they themselves find it helpful and pleasant to be able to explain more clearly what their preferred situation is. Second, it will be more acceptable and clear for the other person or people involved in the conflict to understand what the positive intentions are behind someone's initially negative behavior. For them, it will be much easier to respond to these positive formulations than to the initial formulations which were negative.

June 2, 2015

Mindset and personality

I often meet people who think that personality is hardly malleable. They think that personality is something which you have been given by your genes and early life experiences and that who you are in essence is not or hardly changeable. Some time ago I wrote Changing your personality in which I argued that personality is more malleable than we have long thought. Also, I mentioned a few studies which seem to confirm this belief. But you could ask yourself: what does it matter whether or not you believe that personality is malleable? I think it matters a lot and I came across an article which seems to support that belief:

June 1, 2015

The basement metaphor: finding past successes in the basement of our brain

One of the important parts of the progress-focused approach is to make visible what has worked in the past. Progress-focused coaches, for example, ask their clients questions about their past successes. When those clients find examples of past successes they generally become more positive and optimistic. Furthermore, they often come up with some ideas about how they might take a step forward. This might sound a bit strange. Why would something which has worked before not be visible right away? Why should you make an effort to make it visible? You have already experienced it, haven't you? And it was a positive experience. Why wouldn't you remember it, anyway? 

May 27, 2015

On criticizing concepts and methods

A while ago I wrote about the importance of combining hope and critical thinking. Hope without critical thinking is naïveté; critical thinking without hope is cynicism; lack of both is apathy, is argued in that post. That combination is not only important in general in life but also, and especially when we read about approaches or methods which are claimed to be able to improve our life or our work. One of the reasons for me to think about this topic is that I received an interesting mail by David Creelman which I will summarize below.

David started saying that scientific rigor is important because it discredits cherished false beliefs and snake-oil solutions. He went on to say that also more serious concepts and approaches like work engagement, the innovator's dilemma, and the growth mindset come in for criticism. He said: "I feel it's only a matter of time before someone writes a harsh critique of the growth mindset." He then pointed out that there is a risk that healthy skepticism might turn into cynicism. He closed his email by raising the question whether sometimes a concept which perhaps is not scientifically rigorous might still be useful and better than nothing.

May 26, 2015

7 Myths about mediation

Meditation is becoming quite popular. Much research suggests that it is very beneficial. But there are some reasons to remain skeptical. 

Prevously,  I have written several post about mindfulness meditation. For example, I wrote about research which shows that mindfulness meditation has various benefits for body and mind (see here, here, and here). Also, I have written a post about a few concerns about mindfulness meditation which I have. In that article I wrote that we do not seem to know a lot about what mindfulness medition is, which aspects of it work, and how they work. In addition to that, I expressed my concern about the hype character of mindfulness meditation and warned for exaggerated expectations.

Lately, I have read a few more critical articles about mindfulness meditation. James Coyne, for example, is one of the academics who is quite critical about the mindfulness meditation hype (here is a recent post by him). Another, a bit more accessible, article is written by Catherine Wikhol: Seven common myths about meditation. She describes the following 7 myths about mindfulness meditation (read her article for more information):
  1. Meditation never has adverse or negative effects. It will change you for the better (and only the better)
  2. Meditation can benefit everyone
  3. If everyone meditated the world would be a much better place
  4. If you’re seeking personal change and growth, meditating is as efficient – or more – than having therapy
  5. Meditation produces a unique state of consciousness that we can measure scientifically
  6. We can practise meditation as a purely scientific technique with no religious or spiritual leanings
  7. Science has unequivocally shown how meditation can change us and why
Wikhol's article is a good reminder to remain not only open minded but also critical when reading about popular approaches such as mindfulness meditation.

May 25, 2015

5 Benefits of asking for help

Frequently, I have heard people say: "I'd rather not ask for help. I think I have to solve this myself." This way of this thinking surely has something admirable and sympathetic about it. Probably, people saying such things have a strong sense of responsibility. They think they should be able to solve their problem on their own without bothering other people. But I think it is good to be aware of another way of viewing asking for help. Asking for help can have many benefits, especially for yourself, but also for other people. Here are a few benefits of asking for help:

Enter your email address:

Delivered by FeedBurner