August 26, 2012

The As if principle (review of Rip it up by Richard Wiseman)

Perhaps the title of Richard Wiseman's new book, "Rip It Up: The radically new approach to changing your life" book does not attract you. The author says you, as a reader, are expected to rip out pages of the book which you may not find an appealing thought. Also you may be turned off by the "radical new approach to changing your life" claim in the title. Aren't things promoted too often as radically new which are, in fact, not radically new at all? Anyway, the book description says the approach is based on decades of research, so what is radically new about that? Also, you may feel you do not need help and are therefore not inclined to read self-help books (which this appears to be).

August 25, 2012

Effects of Solution - Focused Group Counseling on Student’s Self - Regulation and academic achievement

Effects of Solution - Focused Group Counseling on Student’s Self - Regulation and academic achievement
Rooholla Saadatzaade and Shiva Khalili

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of solution -focused counseling on selfregulation and academic achievement of high school students. Solution-focused counseling was evaluated through control and experimental pretest – posttest group design. After seven sessions group counseling with students, the self–regulation and academic achievement of students in the counseling intervention group were significantly increased. Moreover, the findings indicated significant difference between control group and experimental group in post test results (p < 0/05).

August 21, 2012

A 3x2 model of solutions

Here is my proposal for a two-dimensional model describing six types of solutions.

The horizontal axis refers to the finding place of solutions and describes three types of solutions:
  1. Following prescriptions: These solutions are exogenous. They are based on experience or evidence outside of the individual(/s) implementing them. They may become available through advice given or by other means such as articles.
  2. Imitation of success by others: These solutions are halfway between exogenous and endogenous. The success was achieved by someone else but the person imitating the success witnessed it so was present in the situation and experienced it to some extent. 
  3. Replicating own past success: These solutions are endogenous. They are based on experience or evidence by the individual(/s) implementing them. 

August 14, 2012

How mindset affects creativity

Consequences of Beliefs about the Malleability of Creativity
O'Connor, Alexander J., Nemeth, Charlan J., & Akutsu, Satoshi (2012)

Abstract: Attempts to maximize creativity pervade corporate, artistic, and scientific domains. This research investigated how individual’s implicit theories about the malleability of creativity affect several creativity related constructs. Through two correlational and one experimental study we examine the relationship between implicit theories about creativity and their effect on both creative problem solving and lifetime creative achievement. In Study 1 incremental theories in creativity are associated with interest in creative thinking, self-reported creativity, and creative problemsolving. In Study 2, incremental theories are associated with lifetime creative achievements in a cross-cultural, professional sample. In Study 3, incremental primes of creativity led to increased creative problem-solving. Further, all studies establish discriminant validity and domain-specificity for implicit theories of creativity. Specifically, Studies 1 and 2 control for individual differences in implicit theories of intelligence, suggesting that implicit theories of creativity and intelligence are meaningfully distinct. Study 3 finds that incremental theories of creativity enhance creative problem-solving but not problem-solving more generally.

August 7, 2012

Wise reasoning associated with well-being

A Route to Well-Being: Intelligence Versus Wise Reasoning.
Grossmann, Igor; Na, Jinkyung; Varnum, Michael E. W.; Kitayama, Shinobu; Nisbett, Richard E.

Laypeople and many social scientists assume that superior reasoning abilities lead to greater well-being. However, previous research has been inconclusive. This may be because prior investigators used operationalizations of reasoning that favored analytic as opposed to wise thinking. We assessed wisdom in terms of the degree to which people use various pragmatic schemas to deal with social conflicts. With a random sample of Americans, we found that wise reasoning is associated with greater life satisfaction, less negative affect, better social relationships, less depressive rumination, more positive versus negative words used in speech, and greater longevity. The relationship between wise reasoning and well-being held even when controlling for socioeconomic factors, verbal abilities, and several personality traits. As in prior work, there was no association between intelligence and well-being. Further, wise reasoning mediated age-related differences in well-being, particularly among middle-aged and older adults. Implications for research on reasoning, well-being, and aging are discussed.

August 2, 2012

Ellen Langer quote on the psychology of possibility

"Psychologists have traditionally studied the 'norm' rather than exceptions that could show that we are capable of far more than we currently realize [...] It is important for people to realize there can be enhanced possibilities for people of all ages and all walks of life. My research has shown how using a different word, offering a small choice or making a subtle change in the physical environment can improve our health and well-being. Small changes can make large differences, so we should open ourselves to the impossible and embrace a psychology of possibility."

~ Ellen Langer (source)

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