A 3 x 2 Achievement Goal Model
By Andrew J. Elliot, Kou Murayama, and Reinhard Pekrun (2011)
Abstract: In the present research, a 3x2 model of achievement goals is proposed and tested (see right). The model is rooted in the definition and valence components of competence, and encompasses 6 goal constructs: taskapproach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, and other-avoidance. The results from 2 studies provided strong support for the proposed model, most notably the need to separate task-based and self-based goals. Studies 1 and 2 yielded data establishing the 3x2 structure of achievement goals, and Study 2 documented the antecedents and consequences of each of the goals in the 3x2 model. Terminological, conceptual, and applied issues pertaining to the 3x2 model are
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