June 15, 2019

The ethical consequences of learning versus outcome goals

David Welsh, JohnBusha, ChaseThiel, JulenaBonner

Abstract: Goal-setting theory is one of the most researched and practically applied theories in the field of organizational behavior. A core tenet of this theory is that specific and challenging goals increase performance. However, recent behavioral ethics research has left unresolved questions regarding how high performance goals can be used to motivate performance without also encouraging unethical behavior. Drawing on achievement goal theory, we consider the role of goal type in arguing that an over-use of outcome goals as performance drivers and an over-reliance on goal difficulty as a motivating mechanism have both created goal-setting’s dark side and obscured potential remedies.

June 13, 2019

When individual goal pursuit turns competitive: How we sabotage and coast

Huang, Szu-chi Lin, Stephanie C. Zhang, Ying

AbstractPeople working toward individual goals often find themselves surrounded by others who are pursuing similar goals, such as at school, in fitness classes, and through goal-oriented network devices like Fitbit. This research explores when these individual goal pursuits can turn into competitions, why it happens, and the downstream consequences of this pseudocompetition on goal pursuers. We found that people were more likely to treat their goal pursuit as a competition when they were near the end (vs. at the beginning) of their individual goal and, thus, prioritized relative positional gain (i.e., performing better than others sharing similar pursuits) over making objective progress on their own goal, sabotaging others when they had the opportunity to do so (Studies 1–3B).

June 11, 2019

Integrative emotion regulation: Process and development from a self-determination theory perspective

Guy Roth, Maarten Vansteenkiste, and Richard M. Ryan

 Abstract: Grounded in self-determination theory's (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2017) organismic perspective, we present a process view of integrative emotion regulation. SDT describes three general types of emotion regulation: integrative emotion regulation, which focuses on emotions as carrying information that is brought to awareness; controlled emotion regulation, which is focused on diminishing emotions through avoidance, suppression, or enforced expression or reappraisal; and amotivated emotion regulation, in which emotions are uncontrolled or dysregulated.

June 9, 2019

Meta-analyses of positive psychology interventions: The effects are much smaller than previously reported

Carmela A. White, Bob Uttl, Mark D. Holder (2019)

Abstract For at least four decades, researchers have studied the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase well-being. These interventions have become known as positive psychology interventions (PPIs). Two highly cited meta-analyses examined the effectiveness of PPIs on well-being and depression: Sin and Lyubomirsky (2009) and Bolier et al. (2013). Sin and Lyubomirsky reported larger effects of PPIs on well-being (r = .29) and depression (r = .31) than Bolier et al. reported for subjective well-being (r = .17), psychological wellbeing (r = .10), and depression (r = .11). A detailed examination of the two meta-analyses reveals that the authors employed different approaches, used different inclusion and exclusion criteria, analyzed different sets of studies, described their methods with insufficient detail to compare them clearly, and did not report or properly account for significant small sample size bias.

June 3, 2019

22 Quotes from People, Power and Profits by Joseph Stiglitz

Nobel prize winner economist Joseph Stiglitz has written a new book called People, Power and Profits. In this book he describes how, since the mid-1970s has been dominated by a conservative ideology which, step-by-step has brought every increasing inequality and the undermining of democracy. In the book, Stiglitz explains what's wrong and what's needed and how to move forward.

March 9, 2019

Repetition increases percieved truth and Trump knows it

Repetition increases perceived truth equally for plausible and implausible statements

Abstract: Repetition increases the likelihood that a statement will be judged as true. This illusory truth effect is well-established; however, it has been argued that repetition will not affect belief in unambiguous statements. When individuals are faced with obviously true or false statements, repetition should have no impact. We report a simulation study and a preregistered experiment that investigate this idea. Contrary to many intuitions, our results suggest that belief in all statements is increased by repetition. The illusory truth effect is largest for ambiguous items, but this is due to the psychometric properties of the task, not an underlying psychological mechanism that blocks the impact of repetition for implausible items. Our results indicate that the illusory truth effect is highly robust and occurs across all levels of plausibility. Therefore, even highly implausible statements will become more plausible with repetition.

November 30, 2018

Inducing Self-Explanation: a Meta-Analysis

Kiran Bisra, Qing Liu, John C. Nesbit, Farimah Salimi, & Philip H. Winne

Abstract: Self-explanation is a process by which learners generate inferences about causal connections or conceptual relationships. A meta-analysis was conducted on research that investigated learning outcomes for participants who received self-explanation prompts while studying or solving problems. Our systematic search of relevant bibliographic databases identified 69 effect sizes (from 64 research reports) which met certain inclusion criteria. The overall weighted mean effect size using a random effects model was g = .55.

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November 25, 2018

Reducing Violence in Non-controlling Ways: A Change Program Based on Self Determination Theory

This paper presents and examines the first school change program focusing on violence and caring based on self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan,2012). The program aimed at promoting teachers’ capacity to cope with violence and enhance caring without becoming more controlling.Comparisons of the effects of a 22-month-long program in three intervention schools and three control schools indicated that the program (a) reduced violent student behavior and controlling teacher behavior and (b) enhanced caring student behavior and active teacher response to violence. The results suggest that exposure to self-determination theory (SDT) concepts may promote a firm, yet non-controlling, teacher response to violence. More generally, the results highlight the potential for incorporating SDT ideas in violence reduction programs. Read full article here.

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